Data is a plural noun, while the singular is called a datum. Data are raw, unorganized, or unprocessed facts that need to be processed. 

Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. 

Data are facts or figures, or information that’s stored in or used by a computer. One typical example of data is information collected for a research paper.

 Data can be collected through observation and questionnaires.

 Data are units of information. It is a fact or information, especially when examined and used to find out things or make decisions. 

It is information that is stored by a computer.


 Data can be qualitative data, quantity data, continuous data, and discrete data.

Qualitative data is descriptive information, and it describes something.

Quantity data is numerical information, i.e., numbers.

Continuous data can take any value, i.e., within a range. Therefore, it is also measured in data.

Discrete data can only take specific values, i.e., the whole number. Therefore, discrete data is counted data.


The following are the examples of data: numbers, name of things, place or animals, words, measurements, observation, or description of things.


 Data can come from different sources depending on the importance of the data. The process of getting data is called the data gathering or collection process. Below are the sources of data:



articles containing original research data, 

government documents and public records, 

newspaper and magazine clippings, 

textbook and biographies.


 Technology is simply the scientific knowledge used in practical ways in industry. For example, when designing new machines. It is the designing of machinery and equipment using technology.


 The types of technology include communication, electronics, medical, mechanical, industrial, and manufacturing.


 Examples of technology are as follows: machine, vehicle, computer, software, equipment-physical tool, information technology, networks, sensors, robotics, artificial intelligence, infrastructure, energy, materials and architecture, medical, food and entertainment-video game.


 The types of technology are people, information, materials, tools and machines, energy, capital, and time.


 Data handling is the process of ensuring that research data is stored, achieved, or disposed of safely and securely during and after the conclusion of research work or project.

 Data handling is essential in ensuring the integrity of research data since it addresses concerns related to confidentiality, security, and preservation/retention of research data. Proper planning for data handling can also result in efficient and economical storage, retrieval, and data disposal.


 Data handling issues encompass both Electronic as well as Non-Electronic methods.

 Electronic Methods: Electronic system includes computer workstations and laptops, personal digital assistance (PDA), storage media such as videotape, diskette, CD, DVD, Memory cards, and other electronic instrumentation. These systems may be used for storage, archival, sharing, and disposing of data, and therefore, require adequate planning at the start of a research project so that issues related to data integrity can be analyzed and addressed early on. In the case of data handled electronically, data integrity is a primary concern to ensure that recorded data is not altered, erased, lost or accessed by unauthorized users.

 Non-Electronic Methods: On the other hand, is an electronic system that includes paper files, journals, and laboratory notebooks.

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